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Terminology

Japanese Numerals for Counting
1 - ichi
2 - ni
3 - san
4 - shi (yon)
5 - go
6 - roku
7 - shichi
8 - hachi
9 - ku
10 - ju

Stances & Body Positions - Dachi
Hachiji-dachi - natural stance, feet parallel
Heisoku-dachi - attention stance
Kiba-dachi - horse riding stance
Zenkutsu-dachi - forward leaning stance
Kokutsu-dachi - backward leaning stance
Neko-ashi-dachi - cat footed stance
Juji-dachi - crossing (X) stance
Ju-dachi - free (fighting) stance
Seiza - formal kneeling posture

Punches with Closed Fist - Zuki
Choku-zuki - straight punch
Oi-zuki - lunge punch
Jun-zuki - front hand punch
Gyaku-zuki - reverse punch
Tate-zuki - vertical fist punch
Ura-zuki - inverted close punch
Kage-zuki - sideways hook punch
Mawashi-zuki - roundhouse punch

Strikes with the Open or Closed Hand - Uchi
Uraken-uchi - back fist strike
Tesui-uchi - hammer fist strike
Teisho-uchi - palm heel strike
Kokuto-uchi - bent-wrist strike
Shuto-uchi - knife hand strike
Haito-uchi - ridge hand strike
Nukite-uchi - 4 finger spear hand thrust
Empi-uchi - elbow strike

Blocking Techniques - Uke
Jodan/Age-uke - high/rising block
(Uchi-) Ude-uke - inside forearm block
Soto-ude-uke - outside forearm block
Genden-barai - downward sweeping block
Shuto-uke - knife hand block
Juji-uke - X block (crossing over)
Kakiwaki-uke - inside wedge block
Nami-gaeshi - lower leg block, leg sweep avoidance

Kicking Techniques - Geri
Mae-geri - front (snap) kick
Yoko-geri - side kick
Mawashi-geri - roundhouse kick
Ushiro-geri - back kick
Mikazuki-geri - inside crescent kick
Fumi-komi - stomping kick

Other Terms Relating to Karate Techniques
Jodan - face level
Chudan - solar plexus level
Gedan - lower abdominal or groin level
Seiken - fore fist (ken = fist)
Kime - focus
Ma-ai - proper distancing between opponents
Kihon Waza - practice of basic techniques
Atemi Waza - Techniques of attacking the vital points of the body
Tegumi - continuous flow drills to practice responses to attacks in forced or mutual confrontation
Kata - set sequences of blocks, attacks and stances performed individually against a variety of imagined attacks.
Bunkai - The practical application of kata form to self-defense situations with a partner
Kyusho - vital points of the body, used for both attacking and healing
Kiai - "spirit shout" loud, explosive shout used to unite physical and spiritual power.
Ippon-kumite - prearranged one-step sparring
Sanbon-kumite - prearranged three-step sparring to practice attack, block, and counter-attack
Jiya-kumite - free-style sparring

Terms Relating to Karate Practitioners
Dojo - training hall, "place of the Way"
Karate-ka - practitioner of Karate
Sensei - Teacher or "experienced person"
Sempai - senior karate-ka, applied to brown belts especially when offering instruction
Dan - "step or man," preceded by a Japanese numeral to indicate black belt or kata levels
Kyu - indicates a rank below black, beginning at 10th & rising to 1st (brown belt)
Yudansha/Mudansha - persons with dan/kyu ranks
Gi - traditional white training uniform
Obi - tied belt
Ki - Japanese concept of life-energy; spirit or power (chi in Chinese)
Hara - lower abdomen center of balance, considered the source or foundation of ki
Bushido - moral & ethical code of the warrior

Verbal Commands Common in the Dojo
Shugo - line up
Kiotski - some to attention stance (heisoku-dachi)
Rei - request to bow
Mokuso - breathing meditation begins
Mokuso Yame - meditation stops, open eyes
Sensei ni rei - bow to black belts at front of class
Hajimae - begin
Yamae - stop

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